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Kaʻahumanu Church stands proudly amidst the quaint streets of Old Wailuku, located in the heart of central Maui. Even to this day, the church reverberates with Sunday services, resonating with hymns and invocations delivered in the Hawaiian language.

Upon the initial arrival of American Missionaries to the islands, religious gatherings took place in the open air. However, over time, these gatherings evolved from thatched grass hales to lumber-built structures, often sourced from New England. Gradually, the use of local materials became more prevalent.

In 1832, Queen Ka'ahumanu, an early convert to Christianity, visited Maui and witnessed services conducted by Jonathan Smith Green at what was then a newly established church. Impressed by what she saw, Queen Ka'ahumanu requested that the Congregationalist mission name the permanent church structure after her.

Initially, Reverend Jonathan Smith Green conducted services in a modest shed built on land owned by the Kahale family, granted under King Kamehameha III. As the congregation swelled to remarkable numbers, a second thatched structure was erected in 1834. Despite the size of the congregations, the permanent membership remained relatively small, with only eleven members noted in an 1834-1835 report.

During the "Great Revival" between 1837–1840, church membership skyrocketed to 487, with 200 new members joining in the 1838-1839 period alone. To accommodate this surge, a third church structure was constructed under the supervision of Reverend Richard Armstrong in 1840. This two-story stone church, measuring 100 by 52 feet, became the centerpiece of the congregation.

However, issues with the roof prompted criticism from Reverend Jonathan Smith Green upon his return in 1841. Following his replacement of Reverend Richard Armstrong, repairs were made to the roof at a cost of $648.28.

In 1857, Reverend William Patterson Alexander assumed leadership, succeeding Pastor Reverend Daniel Conde. Reverend Alexander recognized the need for a new place of worship and began advocating for its construction as early as 1866. It wasn't until 1872, however, that fundraising efforts, spearheaded by William Pulepule Kahale, the church's first Native Hawaiian pastor, were initiated.

The current church structure, the fourth on the site, was completed in 1876 to honor Queen Ka'ahumanu's original request. Constructed in the New England simple Gothic style, it was overseen by Edward Bailey, manager of the Wailuku Sugar Company.

The church's bell and three clock faces, sourced from the Seth-Thomas clock works, were brought over in 1884, donated by the Bailey family at a cost of $1000.00. In 1892, chandeliers were added to illuminate the church interior. The clock within Ka'ahumanu Church was designated the "Town Clock" by Maui County officials.

A stone structure with a single opening stands at the rear of the building, its purpose remaining unknown. The only remaining original structure from the third church is a rock retaining wall along High Street, adorned with several graves. An auxiliary building now sits between the church and the Territorial Building within the Wailuku Civic Center Historic District.

Today, the church continues to hold services every Sunday, preserving the legacy of Hawaiian churches as bastions of the Hawaiian language, which was once banned from public use.

Recognizing its historical significance, the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 12, 1975, and the Hawaii State Register of Historic Places on May 18, 1981.

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